When we see a robot moving on the ground, we often wonder how it works. For a robot to move autonomously, it must have several key components: motors, a robot motherboard, and a variety of sensors, such as LIDAR (Laser Imaging, Detection, and Ranging), 3D cameras, and gyroscopes. The interaction between these components ensures that the robot can move safely and accurately.
Sensors: The “Eyes” and “Ears” of the Robot
LIDAR: By emitting laser beams and measuring the time they reflect back, LIDAR provides detailed information about the robot’s surrounding environment. This helps the robot detect obstacles and plan its path.
3D Cameras: These cameras can capture a three-dimensional image of the surroundings, assisting the robot in recognizing objects, people, and other obstacles.
Gyroscope: Gyroscopes measure and maintain the robot’s orientation and balance.
Robot Motherboard: The “Brain” of the Robot
Once the sensors have gathered data, it is transmitted to the robot’s motherboard. The robot motherboard is a circuit board integrated with a processor, memory, and storage, capable of processing and analyzing data sent from the sensors.
On the motherboard, through specific algorithms, this data is transformed into actual instructions, such as how many degrees to turn or how far to advance. These instructions are based on the robot’s current state, target location, and surroundings.
Motors: The “Legs” of the Robot
After the motherboard generates movement instructions, they are sent to the motors. Motors are responsible for controlling the robot’s actual movements, such as moving forward, backward, or turning.
A robot may have multiple motors to drive different wheels or joints. Based on the instructions received from the motherboard, the motors will rotate at a particular speed and direction, enabling the robot to move.
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